HIRad: Hurricane Imaging Radiometer

The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRad) is a new airborne microwave spectrometer designed to be an enhanced imaging version of the operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) that has been used by NOAA for decades to retrieve surface winds under heavy precipitation. Instrument development has been led by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Central Florida, and the University of Michigan. HIRad operates at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz horizonatal polarization only. It widens the restricted, nadir-only, coverage of SFMR to a cross-track field of view of +/- 65°. The first airborne science flights were conducted during the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in Fall 2010.

Relevant Publications:

Bailey, M.C., R. Amarin, J. Johnson, P. Nelson, M. James, D. Simmons, C. Ruf, L. Jones and X. Gong, “Multi-Frequency Synthetic Thinned Array Antenna for the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagat.,  58(8), doi:10.1109/TAP.2010.2050453, 2010.

Amarin, R., C. Ruf and L. Jones, “Impact of Spatial Resolution on Wind Field Derived Estimates of Air Pressure Depression in the Hurricane Eye,” Remote Sens., 2(3), 665-672, doi:10.3390/rs2030665, 2010.

Amarin, R., W. L. Jones, J. Johnson, C. Ruf, T. Miller, E. Uhlhorn, “The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer Wide Swath Simulation and Wind Speed Retrievals,” Proc. 2010 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Honolulu, HI, USA, pp. 4290-4293, 25 July 2010.

Fenigstein, D., C. Ruf, M. James, D. Simmons, T. Miller, C. Buckley, “Analysis of Anechoic Chamber Testing of the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer,” Proc. 2010 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Honolulu, HI, USA, pp. 550-553, 25 July 2010.

Amarin, R.A., L. Jones, J. Johnson, C. Ruf, T. Miller and S. Chen, “Hurricane imaging radiometer wind speed and rain rate retrieval: Part-2. Analysis of retrieval accuracy,” Proc. 11th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry, pp. 200-204, doi: 10.1109/MICRORAD.2010.5559560, 2010.

El-Nimri, S.F., L. Jones, E. Uhlhorn, C. Ruf and P. Black, “Hurricane Imaging Radiometer wind speed and rain rate retrieval: Part-1. development of an improved ocean emissivity model,” Proc. 11th Specialist Meeting on Microwave Radiometry, pp. 116-120, doi: 10.1109/MICRORAD.2010.5559579, 2010.

Amarin, R., C. S. Ruf, L. Jones and S. S. Chen,“Improved microwave radiometric imaging of surface wind speed dynamics in the hurricane eye-wall,” Proc. 28th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteo., Orlando, FL, 28 Apr-2 May 2008.

El-Nimri, S., S. Al-Sweiss, R. Amarin, W. L. Jones and C. S. Ruf,“Improved microwave remote sensing of hurricane wind speed and rain rates using the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD),” Proc. 28th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteo., Orlando, FL, 28 Apr-2 May 2008.

Amarin, R.A., S.F. El-Nimri, J.W. Johnson, W.L. Jones, B.H. Lim and C.S. Ruf, “Instrument design simulations for synthetic aperture microwave radiometric imaging of wind speed and rain rate in hurricanes,” Proc. 2007 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Barcelona, SPAIN, 23-27 July, 2007.

Ruf, C., R. Amarin, M.C. Bailey, B. Lim, R. Hood, M. James, J. Johnson, L. Jones, V. Rohwedder and K. Stephens, “The Hurricane Imaging Radiometer – An Octave Bandwidth Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometer,” Proc. 2007 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Barcelona, SPAIN, 23-27 July, 2007.